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Difference between HIV 1, HIV 2 everyone should know

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By Francesca Iwambe

Even with the recent groundbreaking discoveries made about the dreaded Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), many people are still ignorant about this disease. This is why it continues to spread fast in our society. Most times we hear of the general term HIV, however, there are two types of HIV; HIV-1 and HIV-2

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Even though both of them cause the disease in the same way and destroy the body’s defense (white blood cells), HIV-1 is more common and accounts for 99% of world HIV infections. A person diagnosed with HIV has a very high chance of being infected with HIV-1. But there are important differences between these two. In this article, I’ll like to enlighten you about the differences between HIV-1 and HIV-2 according to Verywell Health

1. Origin

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The origin of HIV-1 was traced to chimpanzees and gorillas in west Africa. People in western African countries (Nigeria inclusive) have higher cancer of HIV-1. While the origin of HIV-2 was traced to a monkey species called sooty mangabey also found in west Africa.

2. Predominance

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HIV-1 is more predominant than HIV-2 because it can spread faster (more infectious) and can overcome the body’s defense (more virulent). Due to its predominance in society, most cases of HIV are presumed to be HIV-1

3. Rate of spread and mortality

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HIV-1 is more easily transmitted and kills faster than HIV-2. Even though people infected with HIV-1 or HIV-2 will die of complication if the disease is left untreated, those who have HIV-1 may have higher odds of dying faster as the disease progresses very fast and cause more deaths.

4. Diagnosis

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A test called Multispot HIV-1/HIV-2 can be used to differentiate between the two these diseases. People who are from west Africa or are not responding to HIV treatments have to be tested for HIV-1

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Health

Study reveals best time to go to bed for a better sleep

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By Francesca Iwambe

Studies have revealed that going to bed at the same time every night is good for the body as it helps us sleep well.

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Getting enough sleep is necessary for good health. Although there isn’t really a perfect time to go to sleep as it all depends on the individual.

Many people tend to neglect their sleeping time, however, research shows that timing plays a significant role in sleep regulation.

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A study which was carried out on 88,000 adults in the United Kingdom proves that 10 p.m. is the perfect hour to go to bed. It is important to know that going to bed is actually different from sleeping.

Although factors such as food, weather, medications and others tend to affect sleep. You are advised to always go to bed at the same time every night as this helps to activate the circadian rhythm (an internal process which controls our sleep-wake time).

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Experts recommend getting at least 7-9 hours of uninterrupted sleep daily. This means that going to bed by 10 p.m. you are actually expected to rise by 7-8am.

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Things your body experience after morning s3xual activities revealed

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By Francesca Iwambe

People frequently consider only two factors during s3xual activity: how it feels and how it appears.

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However, having intercourse in the morning has a lot of other advantages. According to “MedicalNewsToday”, When you engage in the act with your partner in the morning, your body goes through several changes, including;

1. It helps to reduce tension.

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Pleasurable hobbies might lower your stress hormone levels, according to research. This means that going to peak before you start your day will make you happy the rest of the time.

2. It may make you appear younger.

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Because hormones like oxytocin, beta-endorphins, and other anti-inflammatory molecules are released during morning intimacy, it can make you seem younger.

3. It strengthens your defenses.

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Intercourse can increase your body’s natural defenses against bacteria, viruses, and other pathogens, which will boost your immunity. Everyone needs to be aware of this.

4. It benefits your brain.

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According to studies, the sexual activity causes the production of a variety of neurotransmitters and chemicals, including the feel-good hormone dopamine, which is excellent for the brain and cognition.

5. It is considered exercise.

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Even morning intimacy can be considered exercise. This is due to the minute calorie expenditure during sexual activity.

6. It causes endorphin release.

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The miraculous pain-relieving chemicals endorphins, which help elevate your mood, are produced by intimacy in the morning. You can also gain greatly from this in this way.

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Health

EXCLUSIVE: Immunization: We thought our children will become ‘mumu’ imbeciles – Mothers recount

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FRANCESCA IWAMBE

in this report give the account of parents who initially rejected immunization due to ignorance, thinking that their children will come down with complications from the vaccines but changed their mind after sensitization by health workers.

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Eight-year-old Halima Tanko went to bed one night healthy and strong. By morning, she had lost her ability to walk. Scared, her mother Mrs Hannatu Tanko took her to a traditional healer, who said an evil spirit had attacked her daughter and applied some herbs.

Before her daughter took ill, she had refused all attempt to vaccinate her child. Mrs Hannatu Tanko, used to chase health workers away from her home in northern Nigeria for fear that her children will turn to mumu ‘imbecile’ if vaccinated.

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It was not until a neighbour said he suspected Tanko had polio that she was taken to the hospital where an immediate medical intervention saved her from the full effects of the virus.

The parents who later vaccinated their other five children are now happy that their children are healthy and normal children.

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Speaking with NaijaBlitzNews.com, Tanko said; “I have seen it on my child so anybody who says anything against vaccination, I will show him practical example with my child”.

Like the Tanko family, many parents in northern Nigeria refuse to let their children receive life-saving vaccines because of some myths and conception.

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They believe that vaccines were designed to control the population in Nigeria. With about 200 million people, Nigeria is Africa’s most populous country and is projected to become the third most populous country in the world by 2050.

Also, Fa’isal Abubakar has 11 children. He said, all the children were doing great without vaccination and for that reason, there was no need to vaccinate the. ” I have 11 children without vaccination and I thought if they could survive without vaccination then mine could too”, Abubakar said.

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According to him, his children were not vaccinated because he, himself, did not receive any as a child and so does not see the need.

His theory however changed after his last child took ill and the traditional herbs he so much belive in failed to heal him.

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He said; ” My 3-year -old child took ill with rashes all over his body. we took him to many traditional healers after the herbs I gave him failed. In my confusion and helplessness, someone advised me to take him to a health facility in my community.

” I was reluctant at first but the zeal to my child pushed me. I could not stand the pain he was going through. On reaching there, it was discovered that he was suffering from miseales. He was treated and is doing very well now.

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“I am now a strong believer of vaccines for children and I now encourage people around my community to take their children for vaccination”, he added.

Sokoto leading in childhood vaccination dropout rate

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Unless something is done quickly to address the rising trend, many children in Sokoto State may die or become physically challenged because of infections from childhood diseases like measles, hepatitis B, polio, tetanus, whooping cough, diphtheria, and other vaccine-preventable diseases, according to data from a Federal Government report.

The data is from the Nigeria Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) and National Immunisation Coverage Survey (NICS) recently launched by the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS), in collaboration with the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), World Health Organization (WHO), and other partners.

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The data shows that Sokoto State has the highest dropout rate for childhood vaccination in the country, that is, the percentage of children aged 12 to 23 months who received one dose in the vaccination schedule but failed to receive a later dose.

The report noted that substantially more children are fully vaccinated in the southern zones compared to northern zones.

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It stated that the benefits of vaccines are fully realised when children receive all recommended vaccine doses on time.

The typical vaccination schedule for children in Nigeria includes BCG (tuberculosis), HepB (hepatitis B), OPV (poliomyelitis), PENTA (diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis (whooping cough), hepatitis B and Haemophilus influenza type b), PCV (pneumococcal infection), ROTA (rotavirus), IPV (poliomyelitis), measles, vitamin A, yellow fever, and meningitis.

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According to the report, while the national average for percentage of children between 12 to 23 months who failed to received OPV3, DTP-HepB-Hib3, measles 1 and measles 2, were 30.2 per cent, 20.6 per cent, 18.5 per cent and 22 per cent respectively, the situation in Sokoto State is double of the national average.

In Sokoto State, 50.8 per cent of children failed to receive OPV3; 52.8 per cent failed to receive DTP-HepB-Hib3; 44.4 per cent failed to receive measles 1; while 50 per cent failed to receive measles 2.

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Although Zamfara State fared better than Sokoto in measles vaccination schedules, it however, recorded the highest vaccination dropout rate in OPV3, and second highest dropout in DTP-HepB-Hib3.

The report further noted that while at the national level 18 per cent of children between 12 to 23 months did not receive any vaccinations (which is a decrease of 55 per cent from five years ago), 51 per cent of children in Sokoto State remain unvaccinated.

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Ebonyi is the only state in Nigeria where all the children have received vaccinations against childhood diseases, followed by Enugu State.

Why awareness is key

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According to Dr Emeka Nwankwo, a pediatrician with Gwagwalada specialist hospital, Nothing’s more important that the health of our children.

He said, Immunizations are key to keeping our children safe and have proved to protect children from 14 different diseases before they even turn 2 years old.

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“While we do everything we can to keep them happy and growing strong, there are certain diseases that can affect our children if we don’t ward against them.

“Immunizations are key to keeping our children safe and have proved to protect children from 14 different diseases before they even turn 2 years old. It is important to shed some light on what you can do to promote vaccine awareness. Whether you’re a parent, a community volunteer, a teacher, or a medical professional, there are tons of ways you can promote the value of childhood immunizations.

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“Communication is key, and the same holds true when it comes to awareness. Talk to friends (both parents and non-parents), colleagues and family members about the importance of vaccines. While it’s obvious that children should be getting the recommended immunizations, it’s also important that adults do too.

“If you’re a teacher, community worker, or parent, invite a nurse or doctor to speak to parents about the importance of vaccinating children. With the increase in news topics regarding child immunizations, parents have a lot of questions. Offer a welcoming and open forum for parents to come together with medical professionals to discuss getting their children vaccinated. You can also create a community event and invite families and neighbors to join in on the discussion”, he said.

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